HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Sun, 29 Nov 2020 07:56:42 GMT 保坂绘里 在线

营改增落地两月 广东二手房交易税费减负超千万

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 警惕智慧养老“玩概念”“玩噱头”增加负担 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

北京共有产权房正常开发票 子女上学一视同仁

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

或许这种做法不会在竞争激烈的华尔街推广。有人可能会认为,长时间的休假相当于承认他们的工作可有可无,即使没有他们,同事们也可以生存,或许更能发挥才华。
[l?un]
4. Precious metals: 'Going dark! Economic cycles point downward'
的确,这种兴奋会导致上述团体的成员做出不切实际的声明。一些比特币开发者和投资者宣称,五年内,各大银行将接受比特币。比特币钱包Blockchain公司首席运营官彼得o史密斯承认,上述说法有些夸张。史密斯表示:“我听到很多预测称,很快全世界都将使用比特币,这些预测大都不现实。我们正试图做的,是一个相当大胆的生态系统,所以这将需要很长的时间。”
"I heard from several business leaders who shared their concern about our relative silence and impact in urging the political leadership to act on behalf of the citizenry," Schultz wrote in a letter on his company's website.
With the majority of professional advisors (myself included) preaching the benefits of global diversification to their clients, 2014 looks more like a draw than an outright victory in the harsh light of December’s low winter sun. Consider the fact that, through last week, the MSCI World Index gained just 2% on the year, with nearly 5% drops for both the MSCI Emerging Markets index and the EAFE index of developed markets outside of the United States. Ironically, the single best-performing foreign market in the world, the Shanghai Composite of mainland Chinese equities (up 45%) is the only one that U.S. investors could not actually put their money into.
1.世界杯赛期间的一整个月电视遥控器都由我控制。

And now for the companies that lost the most love ...
伦敦——在20世纪70年代,英国喜剧演员汤米·库珀(Tommy Cooper)讲过这样一个笑话:他在阁楼里发现一把小提琴和一幅画,让拍卖公司估价。拍卖公司说,好消息是它们分别出自斯特拉迪瓦里(Stradivarius)和伦勃朗(Rembrandt)之手。坏消息是那幅画是斯特拉迪瓦里画的,小提琴是伦勃朗做的。
a不,非,mnes记忆-不记仇-赦免
director
A record 27,817 civil service jobs are being offered this year by central government departments and subsidiaries.

Footnotes

  • 定制+模块化 破解家居产品“撞脸”尴尬
  • 共和党候选人时常表现出不确定以及偶尔会忘了自己要说的,好像在试图记住他的简要笔记。当奥巴马从一开始就咄咄逼人时他开始出汗,在伊朗、伊拉克、俄罗斯以及美国的军费开支的交流中他才表现得更好。

James Bond Themes Honorable Mention: "We Have All The Time in the World" by Louis Armstrong
3、美酒佳人。 邦德走到哪里喝到哪里,美酒的确能帮他俘获佳人。喜欢喝一杯的人最容易在第一次约会时就抱得美人归。
会。莫迪一夜之间废除大面额纸币的做法令人震惊,严重扰乱了印度经济。但此举带来了丰厚的政治回报,支撑了莫迪作为愿意采取严厉措施打击腐败的果决领导人的形象。面临2019年的下一届大选,莫迪很有可能想拿出另一项轰动性措施来博取选民的支持。当心,他可能会对那些为了隐藏资产而以他人名义持有房产的富人采取重大行动。
如果陆金所成功完成此轮融资,将可凸显出该行业今年以来增长有多快。该公司刚在4月融资5亿美元,公司估值在当时达到100亿美元。
自从1995年游戏第一次面世以来,续集和新版本在之后也接踵而来。但是,对于许多仙剑迷来说,《仙剑1》激动人心又充满悲伤的故事情节是其他任何版本也代替不了的。
Estimates vary, but the research firm IDC projects that wearable tech will exceed 19 million units this year—more than triple last year’s sales—and will soar to 111.9 million units by 2018. Credit Suisse values the industry at somewhere between $30 billion and $50 billion in the next two to four years. But before that happens, the nascent market has that pesky wouldn’t-be-caught-dead-wearing-it hurdle to clear.

政策松绑是出路 险资入局或助长租公寓融资难题解决

References

View Abstract